Hardness : Durometer is one of several measures of the hardness of a rubber. Hardness may be defined as materials resistance to permanent indentation.

ASTM standard for hardness is ASTM D2240.

Tensile Testing : Tensile testing is also known as tension testing which is a fundamental materials science test in which a sample is subjected to a controlled tension until failure. The results from the test are commonly used to select a material for an application for quality control and to predict how a material will react under other types of forces. Tensile testing is tested with the help of tensile tester, universal testing machine.

ASTM standard for tensile testing is ASTM D412.

Rheometer : A rheometer is a laboratory device used to measure the way in which material flows in response to applied forces. Rheometers that control the applied shear stress or shear strain are called rotational or shear rheometers. Rheometer is often used to find the cure characteristics of a rubber compound.

ASTM standard for rheometric test ASTM D6204

Mooney Viscometer : A Mooney viscometer is an instrument used for measuring the Mooney viscosity of a substance (mainly elastomers and rubbers). It contains a rotating spindle and heated dies.

ASTM standard for Mooney viscosity is ASTM D1646.

Thermo-gravimetric Analysis (TGA): TGA is a method of thermal analysis in which changes in physical and chemical properties of rubber are measured as a function of increasing temperature (with constant heating rate) or as a function of time (with constant temperature and/or constant mass loss). TGA can provide information about physical phenomena such as second order phase transitions including vaporisation, sublimation, absorption, adsorption, and desorption. Likewise, TGA can provide information about chemical phenomena including chemisorptions desolvation, decomposition, and solid gas reactions; for example, oxidation or reduction.

TGA is commonly used to determine selected characteristics of a rubber that exhibit either mass loss or gain due to decomposition, oxidation, or loss of volatiles (such as moisture). Common application of TGA is materials characterization through analysis of characteristic decomposition patterns. It is an especially useful technique for the study of polymeric materials including thermoplastics, thermoset, and elastomers.

ASTM standard for TGA is ASTM D6370-99 (2014)

FTIR: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: FTIR is a technique which is used to obtain an infrared spectrum of absorption or emission of a solid, liquid, or gas. An FTIR spectrometer simultaneously collects high spectral resolution data over a wide spectral range. This confers a significant advantage over a dispersive spectrometer which measures intensity over a narrow range of wavelengths at a time. FTIR is mainly used in rubber application to identify the base polymer of a compound.

ASTM standard for FTIR is ASTM D2702-05 (2016)

Compression Set : The compression set of a material is the permanent deformation remaining when a force is removed. The term is normally applied to soft materials such as elastomers. Compression set is tested with the help of jigs under load placed in an oven with elevated temperatures.

ASTM standard for compression set testing is ASTM D395

Dispersion Testing : Dispersion is important because many failure properties are initiated by agglomerates – the larger the agglomerate, the faster the failure. The performance, failure properties, and appearance of a tyre or rubber products are influenced significantly by the dispersion of the filler in the rubber compound. Dispersion testing is done by using dispersion analyzer.

ASTM standard for dispersion testing is ASTM D7723/ISO 11345

Ash Content : In analytical chemistry ashing or ash content determination is the process of mineralization for pre concentration of trace substances prior to chemical analysis such as chromatography or optical analysis such as spectroscopy. The residues after a sample is completely burn in contrast to the ashes remaining after incomplete combustion consist mostly of metal oxides. As ash is one of the components in the proximate analysis of biological materials consisting mainly of salty inorganic constituents. A crucible can be used to determine the percentage of ash contained in an otherwise burnable sample of material such as rubber.

ASTM standard for Ash content of rubber and rubber chemicals is ASTM D4574-06 (2012).

Density : Density of a solid sample is determined by the hydrostatic method by comparing the weights of the sample in air and water.

ASTM standard for density testing is ASTM D297/ISO 2781/BS903.

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